Psychosocial therapies of psychoses and bipolar disorders
Psychological individual or group therapies
Psychoeducation can be accomplished in the course of either an individual or a group therapy. It serves both the person affected and their families as a broad enlightenment concerning the respective illness and therapeutic possibilities. It can mediate a helpful concept of the illness to individuals who are affected, in order to help to improve their judgment concerning the illness itself, to promote their readiness to administer medications and, in general, to intensify a healthy manner of living.
- Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
Dabei handelt es sich um eine kurze und intensive Therapie, die das
Ziel hat, krankhafte Denk- und Verhaltensmuster zu verändern. Sie
dient bei Menschen mit Psychose der Reduzierung von Wahnvorstellungen
und der Verbesserung depressiver Symptome, aber auch der Behandlung
zusätzlicher „komorbider“ psychischer Störungen
wie z. B. Angsterkrankungen.
Psychoanalysis serves to help find a basis for your most difficult and most painful emotions and experiences. It attempts to help you to become more self-sufficient and to enable you to make rational and well-founded decisions affecting your life. For persons with psychoses, this form of psychotherapy can help you to overcome such special problems as fear, depression, stress, problems in relationships, etc.
- Rhythm therapy (in the event of bipolar disorders)
Most processes of life progress according to an "internal clock". For individuals with bipolar disorders, this clock is "maladjusted", often resulting in the dominance of a chaotic way of life, which in itself can lead to the re-emergence of further illnesses. Consciousness should be developed for performing routine actions, and a daytime as well as night-time structure should be created. This regularisation has a stabilising effect on one's moods.
- Dancing and movement therapy
All movement therapy procedures have in common the assumption that through movement they initiate a general mobilization. This is supposed to lead to positive changes in the behaviour and the physical functions.
- Family therapy
Family therapy serves to reduce conflicts existing within the family and to thereby reduce stress, it helps to inform one's family about the illness and behaviours associated with it, to provide consultation in the event of problems or to offer techniques for the treatment of critical situations. Family interventions, which are best when employed as early and regularly as possible, can help one to delay or even avoid relapses..
- Addiction therapy
Addiction therapy can make a decisive contribution to the further course of a psychotic disorder. Concerning the different treatment traditions, supportive vs. Confrontational, patients with a so-called double diagnosis hitherto have had difficulties to find a coherent therapy for them. In the context of an integrated therapy, i.e. a simultaneous treatment of both disorders, the success and the acceptance of the treatment are the greatest.
Ergotherapy consists of both occupational therapy (OT) and work therapy (WT). The goals of this therapy are the treatment of psychopathological symptoms, which subsequently lead to the loss of a competency to act, it helps to increase one's competency for undertaking day-to-day and significant recreational activities, as well as for conserving or restoring such capabilities and skills that are relevant for employment. In contrast to ergotherapy, work therapy involves the concrete work in preparing for an initiation of or returning to professional life.
- Social therapy
For those individuals who suffer from psychoses, an important component of the psychiatric management is the accomplishment of the entrance to the health-care system including a coordination of resources involving the psychiatric-psychotherapeutic and general medical as well as rehabilitative areas. This is the task of sociotherapy.
Types of psychosocial therapies
- Social competence training (SCT)
"Social competency" signifies the capability of every individual to transfer their "social skills" in the form of a concrete behaviour. SCT involves evaluating one's own behaviour patterns, and the learning of alternative behaviours which thereby serves to improve interpersonal contact which then improves the safety in relationships with other individuals. This is especially important for persons with psychoses, since many of them suffer from social and/or interpersonal fears.
- Metacognitive training (MCT)
Metacognition can be interpreted analogously as "thinking about thinking". In the course of eight training units (modules), the participants are presented with cognitive problems or one-sided styles of solving problems in an entertaining manner which, alone or all together, may culminate in the establishment of false beliefs leading as far as to the development of delusions.
- Art therapy
Art therapy is a nonverbal therapy which makes use of the natural capabilities of people for self-regulation and spontaneous healing. With the help of different artistic materials, it becomes possible to express one's "internal images", feelings, needs, ideas and experiences.
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mit mehreren Varianten zu verschiedenen kognitiven Domänen sowie
sprachlichen, intellektuellen und berufsnahen Fähigkeiten sowie
- Sleep deprivation therapy (in the event of bipolar disorders)
Sleep deprivation is employed in the event of severe bipolar depressions. In such cases, sleep deprivation represents a true alternative. About 50 to 60% of individuals affected reveal a clear improvement in their symptoms. However, successful therapy is frequently only maintained for a short period of time. For this reason, a medicinal therapy making use of mood stabilisers should also be employed simultaneously with the sleep deprivation.